Tax deferred? Tax free? Tax advantaged? It might sometimes feel a bit taxing to think about the tax implications of a Roth conversion.
However, it is probably worth your brain power because a Roth conversion can be tremendously beneficial in the right circumstances.
A Roth account is a type of 401k or IRA.
The main difference between a Roth account and a traditional retirement savings account is tax treatment:
- Money in a traditional 401k or IRA grows tax deferred, meaning that you pay taxes on the money when you withdraw the funds (and no taxes at all when you invest the money).
- Money in a Roth account grows tax free. Contributions to this account are made with after-tax earnings, but you owe zero taxes when you withdraw the funds — no matter how much the account has grown. (Another difference is that Roth IRAs do not have Required Minimum Distributions (RMD), although Roth 401ks do.)
A Roth conversion is when you take money that you have in a traditional 401k or IRA account and move it into a Roth 401k or IRA.
When you do this, you will need to pay taxes on the money you withdraw. However, any future gains will grow tax free.
The NewRetirement Retirement Planner enables you to model a Roth conversion against your own situation to better assess how the move could impact your finances.
Roth conversions can sometimes really save you money on taxes, but they could also cost you. It all depends on your circumstances.
While you should always consult a tax expert before doing a Roth conversion, here are 5 times when it will likely benefit you:
If you think that you will be paying higher taxes in the future, then converting to a Roth account is probably a good move. Whatever money you withdraw now will be taxed at your current rate but not at all in the future.
Tax considerations to consider might include:
- Do you intend to relocate in the future? What is the difference between your current and future state’s tax rates?
- Do you need the money from Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs) and will this income put you in a higher tax bracket?
In many cases, your beneficiaries will pay less in taxes if the money is in a Roth account instead of a traditional account.
Another situation when a Roth conversion could reduce taxes is when you think that the money in your retirement account will likely earn a relatively high rate of return. If you do a Roth conversion before you see these big gains, then you will be paying taxes on a lower dollar amount and all growth in that account will be tax free.
If you are a long way off from needing to withdraw from your traditional 401k or IRA, then a Roth conversion may be a good idea.
If you are already 70.5 or older, then you have already started taking RMDs. If not, then you will be required to withdraw money from traditional 401ks and IRAs starting at age 72. These withdrawals can be a nuisance and can bump you into a higher tax bracket. If you don’t need the income a RMD provides, then it might make sense to convert your traditional accounts to a Roth.
When you take money out of a traditional account and convert it to a Roth account, you will owe taxes on the amount you convert. You need to be sure that you can afford this expense.
NOTE: Many people convert small amounts one year at a time to spread out the tax burden. You do not need to convert an entire account.
You usually can not convert a traditional 401k you have with a current employer to a Roth IRA. You must wait until you have left the employer.
When you do a Roth conversion, all of the money you convert from your traditional IRA or 401k will be taxed as income. However, it is not only the taxes that are costly, the extra income could impact other expenses:
- College Costs: if you are paying for college, the income could impact financial aid packages.
- Medicare: If you are 65 or older, the more money you earn (including withdrawals from IRAs and 401ks taxed as income), the more you might need to pay for Medicare.
If you withdraw money from a tax advantaged account before you are 59 1/2, then you will usually have to pay a 10% penalty in addition to the income taxes you owe.
This does not mean that you can’t convert the money, you just need to do the right kind of paperwork to transfer your funds from a traditional account to a Roth account.
Taxes are confusing and complicated and are perhaps evolving. Before converting money to a Roth account, you may want to consult with a certified financial advisor or a tax accountant.
You also want to make sure that your tax strategy is part of your overall retirement plan. NewRetirement Planner is a rich and detailed tool that addresses many different aspects of personal finance, including taxes.
The tool enables you to try different scenarios — including modeling a Roth conversion. You will be able to immediately see your tax differences and compare cash flow, estate value and more before and after the conversion.
The NewRetirement Planner makes it easy to get started and maintain a robust and reliable plan for your future.